African gang-bosses at Murray and Stewart (Cape Town) attend the company's new gang-boss management course. The course offers an overall picture of industrial activity and instruction in human relations and efficiency improvement. Mr R.H. Snape, an assistant managing director says it has become apparent that gang-bosses must be trained for greater responsibility in the future. The main problem is that though they are good at carrying out orders, they have little ability to question their work role or make the sort of decisions that will improve their productive output. "We hope by these courses to break down the African leader's traditional acceptance of the work situation as it is and to improve his ability to consider alternatives in which he could do his job faster, safely and more efficiently.' Though certain aspects of the training were concerned with the construction industry, the course would equip the gang-bosses for African management in any field of industrial activity. The company also offers courses for semi-skilled workers and is training European supervisors to work with and make the most of the new initiative shown by the African gang-boss.